It depends. Nutrient needs are based on a number of different factors. Weight and coexisting conditions like high cholesterol and high blood pressure are important in determining an appropriate meal plan. Most people with type 2 diabetes need to treat all of these conditions.
Sugars and starches are primarily responsible for high blood sugar after a meal. These include fruit, juice, milk, soda, desserts, beans, peas, bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, and corn. A moderate restriction of these types of car- bohydrates will help control after-meal blood sugar. However, restricting these foods too much may also be harmful, so it is important to seek professional guidance when choosing an appropriate carbohydrate amount. Avoiding fried foods and fatty meats (ground meat, sausage, bacon, bologna, hot dogs) and choosing health- ier cooking oils, like canola and olive oil instead of shortening, lard, and butter, will help control your cho- lesterol levels and may assist with weight loss.
If high blood pressure is a concern, then sodium restriction and weight loss may be helpful. Eliminating canned and jarred items (unless they are low sodium) and reducing added salt can help lower your blood pressure. Using fresh or frozen foods is a much better choice when reducing your sodium intake.
When attempting weight loss, smaller portions of high calorie density foods like processed meats, fats, and refined sugars are important. Increasing portions of low calorie foods like vegetables can make you feel full and therefore less likely to munch on foods that are not as healthy. As with any weight loss program it is recommended that you talk to your doctor before starting an exercise program.
An ideal meal for someone with typical type 2 diabetes who is accustomed to consuming about 2000 calories per day and who is interested in weight loss includes:
Fiber >10 g/mealSodium <650 mg
Carbohydrate ∼45 g/meal
Fat <20 g/mealSaturated Fat <5 g/meal
Cholesterol <60 mg
Protein 35 g/meal (28 g = 1 oz)
Following these guidelines should produce the recom- mended 1-pound-per-week weight loss. Please note, however, that all dietary changes should be reviewed by your healthcare provider in regards to your particular health status. Those who have advanced kidney prob- lems may need to decrease portions of protein. To determine if you are meeting these recommenda- tions you must look at the food label. All of this infor- mation can be found there.