Wednesday, October 17, 2012
Symptoms. The immunologic process that leads to type 1 diabetes can begin years before the symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop. Symptoms become apparent when most of the beta-cell population is destroyed and usually develop over a short period of time. Early symptoms, which are mainly due to hyperglycemia, include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, and blurred vision. Children also may feel very tired. The immunologic process that leads to type 1 diabetes can begin years before the symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop. Symptoms become apparent when most of the beta-cell population is destroyed and usually develop over a short period of time. Early symptoms, which are mainly due to hyperglycemia, include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, and blurred vision. Children also may feel very tired.
Risk Factors. A combination of genetic and environmental factors put people at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Researchers are working to identify these factors so that targeted treatments can be designed to stop the autoimmune process that destroys the pancreatic beta-cells.
Co-morbidities. Children with type 1 diabetes are at risk for the long-term complications of diabetes. Autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and autoimmune thyroiditis are also associated with type 1 diabetes.
Management. The basic elements of type 1 diabetes management are insulin administration (either by injection or insulin pump), nutrition management, physical activity, blood glucose testing, the avoidance of severe hypoglycemia, and the avoidance of prolonged hyperglycemia or DKA. Algorithms are used for insulin dosing based on blood glucose level and food intake.
Overview of Diabetes in Children and AdolescentsDiabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Diabetes is associated with serious complications and premature death, but timely diagnosis and treatment of diabetes can prevent or delay the onset of long-term complications (damage to the cardiovascular system, kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, skin, gums, and teeth). New management strategies are helping children with diabetes live long and healthy lives. Type 1 diabetes in U.S. children and adolescents is increasing (1) and more new cases of type 2 diabetes are being reported in young people. The American Diabetes Association provides helpful guidance in consensus statements for managing children with type 1 diabetes (2) and type 2 diabetes (3). To update primary care providers and their staff about this evolving area of diabetes care, the NDEP has developed this overview of current statistics and care recommendations.
StatisticsDiabetes is one of the most common diseases in school-aged children. According to the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet, about 215,000 young people in the US under age 20 had diabetes in 2010. This represents 0.26 percent of all people in this age group. (4) Based on data from 2002 to 2005, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study reported that approximately 15,600 US youth less than 20 years of age were diagnosed annually with type 1 diabetes, while 3,600 were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. (5) Type 2 diabetes was rare in children younger than 10 years of age, regardless of race or ethnicity. In youth aged 10 to 19 years, type 2 diabetes became increasingly common, especially in minority populations such as American Indians, African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders. Among non-Hispanic white youth aged 10 to19 years, the rate of new cases was higher for type 1 than for type 2 diabetes. For Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian youth aged 10–19 years, the opposite was true—the rate of new cases was greater for type 2 than for type 1 diabetes. Among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic youth aged 10 to19 years, the rates of new cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were similar. (5)
Tuesday, October 16, 2012
ChemopreventionDiscuss aspirin to prevent cardiovascular events:
Monday, October 15, 2012
Sunday, October 14, 2012
DIABETES CAN BE MANAGED! TAKE CONTROL! YOU CAN DO IT!
Foods from different sources can be combined to make up a balanced meal. Your personal meal plan should be designed to suit your lifestyle. Your meal plan will suggest servings of each food group at every meal. The different food groups and examples of one serving in each food group are as follows: (Please note that values are approximate)
1. GRAINS/BEANS/STARCHY VEGETABLES (without added fats or oils) (ex. Rice flour, Beans/Legumes)
2. MEAT & MEAT ALTERNATIVES-VERY LEAN (ex. Chicken Turkey, Tuna in water)
3. MEAT & MEAT ALTERNATIVES-MEDIUM FAT (ex. Egg, Fried Fish)
4. MEAT & MEAT ALTERNATIVES-HIGH FAT (ex. Peanut Butter, Regular cheese)
5. VEGETABLES (no fat added) (ex. Cabbage Cauliflower, White radish)
6. FRUITS (ex. Banana, Mango, Canned fruits, Apple, Orange)
7. MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS (ex. Whole/skimmed/low fat milk)
8. FATS AND OILS (ex. cooking oil, nuts or seeds)